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All students, including those with significant disabilities, should be provided high quality instruction to engage in meaningful literacy activities.  Many students with complex learning needs have been denied access to opportunities which foster literacy success, based upon the erroneous assumption that they could not benefit from this instruction. There is now an emerging body of research in support of literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities.  While some students may not acquire generalized reading skills, literacy skills are “functional” and can enhance a student’s quality of life and lead to improved adult outcomes.

 

This Access Guide website provides a variety of tools and resources for use by educators and family members in the design and implementation of literacy based programs for students with significant disabilities.  In addition to this Literacy section of the Access Guide, other key areas on the site related to literacy include the Photo/Video Library, Case Studies, and Assessment sections.

 

  
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Literacy OverviewUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

All students, including those with significant disabilities, should be provided high quality instruction to engage in meaningful literacy activities.  Many students with complex learning needs have been denied access to opportunities which foster literacy success, based upon the erroneous assumption that they could not benefit from this instruction. There is now an emerging body of research in support of literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities.  While some students may not acquire generalized reading skills, literacy skills are “functional” and can enhance a student’s quality of life and lead to improved adult outcomes.  Stakeholders at the state, regional, district, building, and classroom levels must incorporate the needs of students with significant disabilities into the planning, implementation, and evaluation of their literacy initiative efforts. 

 

This Access Guide website provides a variety of tools and resources for use by educators and family members in the design and implementation of literacy based programs for students with significant disabilities.  In addition to this Literacy section of the Access Guide, other key areas on the site related to literacy include the Photo/Video Library, Case Studies, and Assessment sections.

 

 

Action Steps Recommendations Chart (2012-2013)

A chart providing a list of literacy support recommendations for students with significant disabilities for school year 2012-2013 from the LDE, along with resources to support these recommendations, can be found at the following link:  http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Literacy/Literacy%20Support%20Recommendations%202012_2013%20July.docx

 

 

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Quality Indicators for Literacy Access (Significant Disabilities)Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
The draft Quality Indicators for Literacy Access (Significant Disabilities) was developed through the Louisiana Department of Education.  The document is designed to provide guidance to educators and families on the provision of literacy opportunities for students with significant cognitive disabilities. Indicators are organized in the following areas:  assessment, IEP, instruction, evaluation, administrative support, professional development, and resources. 
 
A draft companion document, Implementation Matrix: Quality Indicators for Literacy Access (Significant Disabilities), provides a tool for schools/systems to use in evaluating their status and progress in implementing literacy programs.   Both documents will be revised in the near future after input from LEA personnel has been received.
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K-3 Literacy Assessments for Students with Low Incidence Disabilities during 2012-2013 Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

The Louisiana Department of Education provides guidance to local school districts on issues related to K-3 literacy assessments for students who:

1) have a significant cognitive disability (i.e., students who either currently participate in LEAP Alternate Assessment, Level 1, or will likely qualify for this assessment program at some point in the future),

2) are Blind/Visually Impaired, or

3) are Deaf/Hard of Hearing.

 

Click here to access this K-3  guidance on the Louisiana Department of Education's website.  The Sample Assessment Tools chart provides a description of alternate literacy assessment tools which can be used if DIBELS does not provide a viable means of assessing a student with a significant disability.  Also included in the chart are links to the assessment tools.

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Literacy Assessment Tools: Sample Options for Students with Significant DisabilitiesUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

This chart, Sample Assessment Tools, compiled by Dr. Caroline Musselwhite, contains information regarding a variety of assessment tools that can be used to assess the literacy/reading progress of a student with a significant disability.  One or more of these tools can be used in addition to assessment tools used by districts.  These tools do not take the place of other assessments required by districts such as the DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills).

 

One assessment tool described in the above referenced chart is The BRIDGE (Pierce, Summer, O’DeKirk, in progress).  An example is provided here (BRIDGE photograph samples) of images of a Louisiana student engaged in various literacy activities outlined in the assessment tool.

 

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Literacy FolderUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

The Louisiana Department of Education recommends that a Literacy Folder be initiated for all students with significant disabilities (click on Literacy Folder Overview for a complete description).  The Literacy Folder is an individual student folder that will follow the student across grades and will provide a clear picture of growth in literacy learning and communication skills.  The intent is to help teachers, therapists, and others quickly access previous assessment information, sample portfolio pieces, and materials, strategies, and programs that have been implemented. 

The Literacy Folder is essential to provide a seamless transition in student literacy accomplishments and needs across grade levels.  For students with significant disabilities, assessment can be arduous and time-consuming.  It is crucial to retain assessment data, including informal assessment to chart progress, but also to avoid wasting valuable time.  Portfolio pieces across time will help educators plot change across a longer time span than a single school year.  Current teachers will be able to find information such as materials and programs that were successfully used with each student, and special interests that support literacy efforts.

The Literacy Experiences Summary and Communication Profile are charts which can be incorporated in the use of the Literacy Folder.  The intent is to provide a ‘snapshot’ of the student’s literacy experiences through the school year, as well as the student’s needs/status related to both expressive and receptive communication issues.

 Click here for images from one Louisiana district where Literacy Folders are being used to track students' access and outcomes related to literacy.

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Assessment Flow Chart (What to do if standard literacy assessment tools aren't sufficient.)Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

The Assessment Flow Chart provides an illustration of the process to follow if standard literacy/reading tests and materials used to assess every student (e.g., DIBELS, developmental spelling tests) are not providing sufficient information about the progress/strengths/needs of a student with a significant disability

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Literacy Rubric (Kathy Staugler, 2007) (Informal literacy assessment tool)Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

The Literacy Rubric reprinted here with permission from the author, Kathy Staugler, can be used to conduct an informal literacy assessment of a student with a significant disability.  The rubric addresses the five components of reading instruction across three levels of literacy engagement:  Early Emerging Literacy, Transitional Emerging Literacy, and Early Conventional.

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Attachment
1-Minute Writing Context ChecklistUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
The 1-Minute Context Checklist is designed to support teachers of students with significant disabilities in saving student writing samples that permit comparison across time.   Click here for a PowerPoint file containing photographs of a student's writing which was tracked using the 1-Minute Context Checklist.
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Assessing Developmental SpellingUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

Developmental spelling is important because it gives us a "window" into children's understanding of how to use print to form words, and how those understandings grow across time.  Across time, individuals go through predictable "phases" of developmental spelling.  The Monster Test of developmental spelling can identify the current phase of spelling, and show progress across time and across interventions.

 

The two documents provided here include an overview of the Monster Test of developmental spelling, which was designed by Rick Generty and colleagues in 1985, along with ideas for adapting the test for use with students who need accommodations.

 

Monster Test Introduction: Assessing Developmental Spelling

 

Monster Test: Administration

 

The webinar Developmental Spelling: Linking Assessment and Intervention (delivered by Dr. Caroline Musselwhite, June 2012) provides a overview of how to use this assessment tool.

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Every Day Chart (Provide literacy support for every child every day!)Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

The Every Day Chart, compiled by Dr. Caroline Musselwhite, is designed to show teachers the types of literacy activities that EVERY student should engage in EVERY day.  Thus, the opportunity to choose books and read or listen independently, and to write using accessible tools, should happen on a daily basis, not just occasionally.  Looking at this chart from top to bottom also shows how a student’s skills in one area, such as interacting with a group leader around text, might grow across a year.  For assessment and planning support, see the Bridge protocol (link provided in the chart). 

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Literacy Articles (significant disabilities)Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

Research-Based Practices for Creating Access to the General Curriculum in Reading and Literacy for Students with Significant Intellectual Disabilities (Erickson, Hanser, Hatch, &Sanders, 2009) was developed by the Center for Literacy and Disability Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.  The publication provides an extensive review of research-based practices and their implications for literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities.

 

The Beginning Literacy Framework by Karen Erickson, Caroline Musselwhite, and Ruth Ziolkowski (2002) focuses on reading needs for students with significant disabilities:

• Materials that Match their Ability

• Opportunities to Read (including both light and high-tech materials)

Standards-based Materials

 

This framework helps educators choose and create books that match needs of students for enrichment, transitional, and conventional texts. 

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Literacy Action Step Chart 2012-2013Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

This chart (click here) provides a list of literacy support recommendations for students with significant disabilities for school year 2012-2013 from the Louisiana Department of Education, along with resources to support these recommendations.  Recommendations for the following roles are identified:  Classroom Personnel, Literacy Specialists, and Principals/Administrators.

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Emergent Literacy GoalsUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
The Center for Literacy and Disability Studies at the University of North Carolina has posted sample IEP literacy goals for students who are just getting started with literacy.  These examples cover a range of literacy issues and may assist IEP teams in developing meaningful targets for students with the most significant disabilities.  Refer to the link below at the Center's website:
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Top Ten Tips for Literacy! (Supporting Students with Significant Disabilities)Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

Dr. Musselwhite, internationally known for her work in the areas of assistive technology and literacy support for students with significant disabilities, has granted permission to post her “Top Ten Tips for Literacy” related to literacy access for students with significant disabilities.  Click on each of the topics listed below for great strategies that you might try in your own classroom!

 

See more tips at:

www.aacintervention.com

 

 

 

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Literacy and Significant Disabilities - Websites, Blogs, Wikis, and NingsUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
This document, Websites, Blogs, Wikis, and Nings, contains a list of helpful websites related to literacy access for students with significant disabilities.  Also provided is a description of each site.
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Story-based Lesson Task AnalysesUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
Three sample task analyses for use in conducting story-based lessons are provided here.  These have been posted with permission from Dr. Diane Browder.  The materials were developed through Project MASTERY/NAAC (IES Grant # H324U040001).
 
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Literacy Access Images (photos, video clips)Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

Through the use of photographs and video clips, this section of the Access Guide provides examples of adaptations, modifications, and supports used to actively engage students with significant disabilities in literacy activities.  NOTE:  Additional photographs and video clips specific to the use of "alternate pencils" are posted under the "Alternate Pencil" heading under the Literacy tool bar.

 

Photographs

The documents listed below provide photographic images of students engaged in literacy activities.  To open the documents, simply click on the highlighted titles.

 

Photographs of adaptations and modifications used to teach literacy with the use of Attainment’s “Early Literacy Skill Building” program

Accessing Literacy Using a Variety of Methods

 

General Literacy Support Pictures (1)

 

General Literacy Support Pictures (2)

 

General Literacy Support Pictures (3)

 

General Literacy Support Pictures (4)

 

 

Video Clips

The following chart provides links to brief video clips of students with significant disabilities engaged in literacy activities.  Information is included regarding the type of activity/strategy depicted in the video clips, as well as the Extended Standards addressed. NOTE:  The examples are listed in grade level order (K -12th grade).

 

When observing these clips, consider the following points:

  • Level of student engagement in activity
  • Adaptation/modifications linked to student needs
  • Clarity of instruction
  • Learning outcomes for student
  • Age appropriateness
  • Strategies that might be used to include this instruction within the context of a general education class/activity

 

 

Video clips

(minutes:

seconds)

 

Grade level

Extended Standards

Activity description/strategy

Reading at Elementary School

 

Part 1 (2:38)

 

Part 2 (3:08)

1st - 2nd

ELA

ES-42/37:  Use listening strategies

Students are engaged in a reading activity using different techniques (searching, pointing, touching, reading, questions, big vs. little, M (mmmm) sound, repeating words). 

 

Observe: instruction on components of reading, use of assistive technology to support engagement

Reading – Symbol manipulation increases attention

(1:03)

K, 1st, 3rd

ELA 

ES-8/5: Identify story elements, including: characters

 

Benchmarks/GLEs:

Kindergarten:  

ELA-1-E1, ELA-1-E2, ELA-1-E4, ELA-1-E5, ELA-7-E3

 

First Grade:

ELA-1-E4, ELA-4-E4, ELA-1-E1, ELA-7-E1

 

Third Grade: 

ELA-1-E4, ELA-7-E1

 

 

 

As the teacher reads a big book to the students, each student is given a job to Velcro pictures or repetitive story lines onto the book pages.  This increases attention and engagement in the lesson because they feel they are an important part of reading the story.  This also increases comprehension because the students are matching story pictures and repetitive story lines.

Note: Pictures were created using Picture It! Software.  Repetitive story line cards were created using Boardmaker software.

Reading-

Differentiated responses to predict outcomes

(1:02)

K, 1st, 3rd

ELA

ES-22/20: Write a composition that is organized with: central idea and a logical, sequential order.

 

Benchmarks/GLEs:

Kindergarten

ELA-1-E5, ELA-7-E2, ELA-2-E1, ELA-2-E3, ELA-2-E6, ELA-3-E5

 

First Grade             

ELA-7-E2, ELA-2-E6

 

Third Grade           

ELA-7-E2, ELA-3-E1

 

 

The teacher created 3 differentiated levels based on the student’s instructional level.

Level 1 – The teacher created a sentence cloze worksheet and the student had to choose a picture of an animal to complete the sentence cloze.  The student will glue the picture onto the paper under the cloze. (Note: Photos were from Picture It! Software.)

Level 2 – The teacher created a sentence cloze worksheet and presented the students with 3 choices of possible outcomes using Boardmaker software.  The student chose the picture and glued onto sentence cloze then drew a picture to support the sentence.

Level 3 – The teacher created a sentence starter worksheet and the student had to think of another possible outcome to the book and write on the lines of the worksheet.  The student then drew a picture to support the sentence. (Modification – The student could dictate & the teacher could write on paper or have the student copy the dictation.)

Interdisciplinary Connections- Numeracy & Science in the midst of Literacy

(0:27)

K, 1st, 3rd

ELA

ES-8/5: Identify story elements, including: character

ES-42/37: Use listening strategies

Science

ES-A1 Classify objects based on properties (size, color, numbers)

Benchmarks/GLEs include:  Kindergarten   (ELA, math, science)

1st grade (ELA, Math, science)

3rd grade  (ELA, science)   

The teacher reads the book and asks comprehension questions.  The teacher guides the students to describe the fish using colors, numbers, and size words.

Note: This extension activity is provided by Unique Learning System in the March Elementary lesson plans.

Enthusiasm Influences Learning!

(0:57)

K, 1st, 3rd

ELA

ES-8/5: Identify story elements, including: character

ES-42/37: Use listening strategies

Science

ES-A1 Classify objects based on properties (size, color, numbers)

Benchmarks/GLEs also include: Kindergarten (ELA, math, science)

1st grade (ELA, math, science)

3rd grade (ELA, science)

The teacher will read the book and ask comprehension questions.  The teacher is excited and engages the students during the reading and in turn the students are excited about reading the book which decreases behavior issues.

Note: This extension activity is provided by Unique Learning System in the March Elementary lesson plans.

Composing sentences using symbols

Part 1 – 0:33 

Part 2 – 1:09

K, 1st, 3rd

ELA

ES-22/20: Write a composition that is organized with: central idea and a logical, sequential order.

 

Science

ES-A1 Classify objects based on properties (size, color, numbers)

 

Benchmarks/GLEs:

 

Kindergarten (ELA, Math, Science)

 

First Grade (ELA, Science)

The students will compose sentences using describing words such as color, numbers, and size words.  The teacher will provide the sentence cloze and picture icons to complete the sentences.  The sentences will be based upon the students’ individual levels.

 

Level 1 – The teacher will provide a laminated copy of the sentence cloze worksheet with picture icons that will be velcroed.  The teacher will give the students picture choices & the student will Velcro 1 size word picture (small, medium, large), 1 color word picture, and 1 number word picture into sentence cloze.  The student will then find the appropriate fish cut outs and place onto top of page.  The student will repeat for each size word: small medium, large.

 

Level 2 – The teacher will provide the student with 3 copies of the sentence cloze worksheet and copies of the fish cutouts and picture icons.  The student will make a page for each size word picture and choose their own color & number pictures.  The students will glue the picture icons on the sentence cloze then get the appropriate amount & correct size fish cutouts and color to match their sentence.  Then glue the fish to the top of each page to support the sentence.

 

Level 3 - The teacher will provide the student with 3 copies of the sentence cloze worksheet and copies of the fish cutouts and picture icons.  The student will make a page for each size word picture and choose their own color & number pictures.  The students will write the words from the picture icons on the sentence cloze then get the appropriate amount & correct size fish cutouts and color to match their sentence.  Then glue the fish to the top of each page to support the sentence.

 

Note – Materials are provided in an extension activity by Unique Learning System in the March Elementary Unit lesson plans.

Small, Medium, Large Comparison Activity

(0:33)

K, 1st, 3rd

Science

ES-A1 Classify objects based on properties (size, color, numbers)

 

Benchmarks/GLEs:

ELA

Kindergarten           

ELA-4-E3

 

Math

Kindergarten             

M-3-E, M-1-E, M-2-E,  G-2-E

 

First Grade               

G-3-E, G-2-E

 

The teacher will present Early Language Concept Kits – Comparing Sizes.  (Kit available at Lakeshore Learning) The teacher will guide the students to complete one card through guided practice then complete 1-2 cards independently to check for comprehension of size words.  

Note – If you do not have a comparing sizes kit you can still practice the skill by going to the English/Language Arts Unit link and looking under the Stone Soup unit for some additional activities.

Early Literacy Skills Builder session

Preparation  (:28)

Class Participation(1:57)

Touching Words (:52)

Reading Sentences (2:12)

Read-Sing-Touch (2:26)

1st-2nd

Multiple students are engaged in a reading lesson using the Early Literacy Skills Builder program.

Observe:   different needs of students and how these needs are accomodated/supported in the instructional section

Beginning Engagement in Literacy (1:51)

 

Joint attention (:00 - :15)

 

Student interaction

(:16 – 1:02)

 

Skimming and Scanning

(1:03 – 1:51)
3rd-4th

ELA

ES- 8/5: Identify story elements, including: character

 

ES- 21/19: Apply basic reasoning skills, including: skimming and scanning text for specific information (field of two)

 

ES-38/35: Follow simple directions

Students are engaged in the foundations of reading a book – Book knowledge/ Appreciation/Print Awareness/Story Comprehension (from The BRIDGE. Pierce, Summer, O’DeKirk, in progress).

 

Students display joint attention while being read to.

 

Students interact with symbols/print.

    

Observe: Teacher using a least to most prompting strategy to introduce skimming and scanning to make choice from a field of two.

Partner Four word review(1:54)

3rd-4th

ELA

ES-1/1: Reading and responding

 

Benchmarks/GLE’s:

ELA-1-E1

Through consistent use of manual signing and graphic symbols, the student demonstrates his ability to understand and use the symbols. He utilizes a Partner Four to communicate the vocabulary words for the weekly story.  The student is engaged in The Early Literacy Skills Builder reading series developed by Dr. Diane Browder.

Counting and one-to-one correspondence

 

 

(1:17)
3rd - 4th

MATH

ES-1/1: Read and write place value

3. Read and/or write numbers

2. Identify numbers

1. Count objects to a given number.

 

Benchmarks/GLE’s:

N-1-E

The teacher models for the students how to roll the die, count and stamp the correct number using one-to-one correspondence.  The students are highly engaged and interested in the activity.  Rolling the die and using the ink blotter are also addressing fine motor skills.

Literacy and writing

(1:47)
3rd - 4th

ELA

ES-1/1: Reading and responding

ES-27/26: Write for various purposes

ES-42/37: Use listening strategies.

EX-17/14: Understanding information in text

  

Benchmarks/GLE’s:

ELA-1-E1, ELA-2-E6

ELA-7-E1

The teacher engages the students in literacy activities by stating the title and setting a purpose for reading the book by looking for specific information and vocabulary. Writing is modeled by the teacher before the students are given unprompted writing opportunities.  The students’ writings are then read back for reinforcement and further modeling.

“Chunking” activity

(1:17)
3rd - 4th

ELA

ES-1/1:  Reading and responding.

 

 

Benchmarks/GLE’s:

ELA-1-E1
This group of students works with the teacher in “chunking” words into syllables. “Chunking” is an activity used to teach phonics skills with The Early Literacy Skills Builder reading series developed by Dr. Diane Browder.  Physical support is provided for some of the students, while one student decides to complete the activity independently.

Writing with an Expanded Keyboard

(1:45)

3rd-4th

ELA

ES- 21/19: Apply basic reasoning skills, including: skimming and scanning text for specific information

 

ES- 17/14: Demonstrate an understanding of information in texts

·   identifying main idea

·   sequencing events

 

ES- 22/20: Write a composition that is organized with

·   central idea

·   logical, sequential order

Teacher/student utilizing expanded keyboard to write about a story read. 

 

Maximum prompting used by teacher to keep student engaged in the activity.

 

Student able to independently write last sentence with an “errorless” technique.

Alternate Pencil(1:15)

3rd

ELA

ES-42/37:  Use listening strategies

Student is engaged in a reading activity using a communication device to select a word.

Reading for Multiple Purposes (1:30)

Students read The Very Hungry Catepillar multiple times for multiple purposes (e.g., title, main character).

Word Wall (1:03)

Students select words related to text (The Very Hungry Catepillar) for word wall.

Interactive Board-Old MacDonald

(0:42)
5th

ES-12/11

Demonstrate understanding of information in text, including sequencing events and making predictions

 

ES-17/16

Demonstrate understanding of text by using reasoning skills, including: cause and effect.

 

Benchmarks/GLE’s:

 

ELA-7-M4

ELA-4-M4
Student actively engaging in independent reading with a song on an interactive board.  Student interacts with symbols, makes predictions, turns pages (advances slides), listens (phonemic awareness), participates verbally and demonstrates shared/joint attention with class.

Adapted Book-Reading Group(0:52)

5th-6th

ES-4/3

Develop a vocabulary of common content-specific words

 

ES-12/11

Demonstrate understanding of information in texts, including sequencing events and making predictions

 

ES-38/37

Demonstrate active listening skills

 

Benchmarks/GLE’s:

ELA-1-M2, ELA-7-M1,

ELA-4-M4
Small group of students who are non-verbal reading an adapted book with a repeatable line. A single switch voice output device is used to facilitate verbalizations with correct timing during book reading.  Students use symbols during book reading demonstrating comprehension and increased vocabulary knowledge.

Introducing Counting

(0:28)

5th-6th

ES-8/9

Add and subtract numbers

 

Benchmark/GLE’s:

N-5-M
Student engages in counting activity on an interactive board using Early Learning I software by Marblesoft. Teacher demonstrates prompting student to succeed by modeling the correct number via pointing on the board.   

Daily Sign In(0:52)

5th-6th

ES-25/24

Write for various purposes

 

Benchmarks/GLE’s:

ELA-2-M6

Teacher offers choices of colored markers to students to expand communication opportunities during daily writing routine. Students sign in authentically as teacher follows up with modeling of printing child’s name.  

Supporting Independent Reading with AAC

(2:12)

5th-6th

ELA

ES- 4/3: Develop a vocabulary of common content-specific words.

 

ES- 17/16: Demonstrate understanding of text by using reasoning skills, including:

·   skimming and scanning

·   cause and effect

This student participated in class readings of a higher level version of this Unique Learning Intermediate book.  She is somewhat prompt dependent and her speech is unintelligible in unknown contexts.  She is working on becoming more independent with activities.  This version of the book was given to her as an independent reader that she can take home and read to her family.

Observe:

Student pointing to words to indicate she has an understanding of text. (:09)

 

Student using picture cues to read words. (:16)

 

Student reading word then pointing to correct picture to verify comprehension. (:40)

 

Dots were used to assist student with attending to reading each word. (:49)

 

Student using learned scanning technique to locate word on device. (:59)

Identifying Vocabulary Using Symbols (:46)

ELA

5th-6th

 

Science

8th

ELA

ES-4/3: Develop a vocabulary of common content-specific words

 

Science

ES-C3: Recognize that different types of familiar animals are suited to different habitats (i.e., ocean, lake/river, forest, grassland, desert)
Students identify vocabulary words using symbols then read lesson on Biomes.

Checking for Understanding (:36)

ELA

5th-6th

9th-11th

 

Science

8th

ELA 9-11: ES-11/11 - Demonstrate understanding of information in texts, including: summarizing information, comparing and contrasting literary elements and ideas within and among texts, sequencing events or procedures, making inferences, drawing conclusions, making predictions about a story

Student identifies different Biomes after lessons on ecosystems

Informal Assessment Using Symbols

(2:06)

ELA

5th-6th

9th-11th

 

Science

8th

ELA 9-11: ES-11/11 - Demonstrate understanding of information in texts, including: summarizing information, comparing and contrasting literary elements and ideas within and among texts, sequencing events or procedures, making inferences, drawing conclusions, making predictions about a story

 

ELA 5-6: ES-4/3 - Develop a vocabulary of common content-specific words

 

Science 8: ES-C3 - Recognize that different types of familiar animals are suited to different habitats (i.e., ocean, lake/river, forest, grassland, desert)

Students categorize plants and animal into the correct Biomes after lessons on ecosystems.

Reading with Story Boxes (0:39) 6th

This student is addressing the access skills of attending to the story and indicating to a partner when to turn the page.

The student is engaged in listening to a simple, age-appropriate story from Tarheel Reader.  Exploring a Story Box containing story related sensory objects increases engagement and supports comprehension for students with visual impairments and students with more significant cognitive disabilities. 

Observe:  Note the use of wait time in the video.  Students with more complex needs often require a longer period of time to process and respond to stimuli.  Appropriate use of wait time enhances student learning.  For students with the most complex needs wait time as long as 30-60 seconds may be necessary in the beginning.

Also note that the teacher attributes meaning to the student’s behavior, waving, to shape the behavior into an intentional gesture for communicating “I’m finished” or “I want to stop.”

AAC Supports Class Discussion

(1:03)

6th-8th

ES-38/38: Participate in a group discussion

Using augmentative communication strategies allows students who are non-verbal to participate in class discussions.  These students are brainstorming ideas for a group writing activity about a story they have read.

Alternate Pencils

Writing with Alternate Pencils: Scanning

(1:35)

Writing with Alternate Pencils : Direct Selection – Low Tech

(1:14)

 

Writing with Alternate Pencils: Direct Selection – High Tech

(0:35)

6th-8th

Grades 5-6

ES-15/15: Write a composition

Grades 7-8

ES-22/22: Write for various purposes

Alternate Pencils provide access to writing with for students who are unable to hold a traditional pencil.  Students are presented with all 26 letters of the alphabet and dictate their choices using either scanning or direct selection.   During each writing session, the teacher models use of the student’s alternate pencil, the student writes, and the student reads back his writing.  Writing with Alternate Pencils allows students with significant disabilities to develop beginning writing skills in the same way as typical students at the emergent writing level. 

The three students in the videos show three different methods of accessing writing.  All three students are at the very beginning emergent stage of writing.  The instructional focus is on the process of “scribbling” with their alternate pencils rather than attempting to spell or produce a specific end product.  Meaning is attached to their choices when possible to increase engagement and to highlight sound/symbol relations.  Students who are non-verbal use their communication devices to read back their writing. 

Observe:  Note in the first video, Writing with Alternate Pencils: Scanning, how the teacher incorporates recording the student’s writing on the device into the teaching session.

In the third video, Writing with Direct Selection – High Tech, note the use of a tactile Braille overlay on the Intellitools board, the use of hand-under-hand modeling, and reinforcement of left-to-right fingering.

When writing was first introduced, some students actively resisted participating by irritated vocalizations, turning their heads away, and pushing materials away. One student simply seemed unaware of the materials or the teacher’s modeling or instruction.  With continued exposure and modeling over several months, the students have begun to actively participate in the writing process.  Additionally, growth has been seen in areas such as intentional responding, switch use, cause/effect relations, attending to task, social interaction and communication skills.

Additional information on "writing with alternate pencils" is available on the following links:

http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/Site%20Pages/LiteracyView.aspx

http://www.med.unc.edu/ahs/clds/available-for-purchase-1/available-for-purchase

http://www.med.unc.edu/ahs/clds/resources/deaf-blind-model-classroom-resources/Emerg%20Wrtg%20Obs%20Inventory.pdf/view

http://www.med.unc.edu/ahs/clds/resources/deaf-blind-model-classroom-resources/EmergentLiteracyGoals2009.pdf?searchterm=iep

Beginning Writing

(0:43)

7th ES-22/22: Write for various purposes

Modeling rather than copying or hand-over-hand assistance is used to instruct a beginning writer.  Using this approach the student has increased time on task from 5-10 seconds to over 15 minutes. He now produces more than 30 marks per session and uses a variety of pre-writing strokes. He is now being exposed to letter writing. 

 

Observe:  Note the “High 5” reinforcement at the end. Hitting to request attention is being shaped into the more socially appropriate behavior of giving a “High 5.”

Interactive Board- Reviewing Story Elements (:48) 9th-12th

ELA

 

ES-2/2: Identify story elements

 

ES-11/11: Demonstrate understanding of information in texts

 

ES-29/32: Follow procedures for complex procedures/routines

 

Benchmarks/GLE’s

ELA-1-H2, ELA-7-H1,

ELA-4-H2

This video clip shows a student using a Promethean Board to complete a teacher-made ActivInspire activity. The activity reviews story elements (title, author, main idea and setting) of a Start to Finish Literacy Starter book (Don Johnston, Inc.).

Interactive Board- Reviewing Vocabulary

(:27)

9th-12th

ELA

 

ES-11/11: Demonstrate understanding of information in texts

 

ES-29/32: Follow procedures for complex procedures/routines

 

ES-35/38: Participate in a group discussion

 

Benchmarks/GLE’s

ELA-7-H1, ELA-4-H2,

ELA-4-H6
This video clip shows a student using a Promethean Board to complete a teacher-made ActivInspire activity assisted by the para-professional. The activity uses text, pictures and voice recordings to review vocabulary words.

Interactive Board- Spelling

(:46)

9th – 12th

ELA

 

ES-29/32:  Follow instructions for complex procedures/routines

 

ES-35/38:  Participate in a group discussion, including- acting as facilitator

 

Benchmarks/GLE’s:

ELA-4-H2, ELA-4-H6

This video clip shows a student using a Promethean Board to complete a teacher-made spelling lesson. The lesson was created using ActivInspire Software.

Interactive Board- Vocabulary Picture Find

(:52)

9th-12th

ELA

 

ES-11/11: Demonstrate understanding of information in texts

 

ES-29/32: Follow procedures for complex procedures/routines

 

 

ES-35/38: Participate in a group discussion

 

Benchmarks/GLE’s

ELA-7-H1, ELA-4-H2,

ELA-4-H6

This video clip shows a group of students using a Promethean Board to complete a teacher-made ActivInspire activity. The activity requires the students to drag a circle over each vocabulary picture.
Interactive Board- Geometry Vocabulary (1:18) 9th-12th

Math

 

ES-7/4 Use basic concepts of proportional reasoning in real life situations

 

ES-26/14 Identify a simple transformation

 

ES-28/22 Use data in real life situations

 

Benchmarks/GLE’s

N-6-H, G-3-8, D-7-8

This video clip shows a student playing a Geometry vocabulary dice game. The die was created using a simple “mailing” box and Geometry vocabulary words/pictures inserted into the CD sleeves (glued on each side of the box). The teacher-made interactive chart was created with ActivInspire software and a Promethean Board is used for chart access.

Reading-Using Voice Output Device

(:34)

9th-12th

ELA

 

ES-29/32: Follow instructions for complex procedures/routines

 

ES-35/38: Participate in a group discussion (when used with more than 1 student)

 

Benchmarks/GLE’s

ELA-4-H2, ELA-4-H6

This video clip shows a teacher assisting a student in using a Penfriend (voice output device) to read a Start to Finish Literacy Starter book. The teacher has recorded the digital version of the book onto the Penfriend.

Using Technology to Create Graphs and Charts

(:55)

9th-11th ES-28/22: Use data in real-life situations Student uses technology, a SMART Board, to create a chart/bar graph. Used as reinforcement activity and assessment. 

Using Picture Symbols to Make a Presentation(2:01)

9th-11th

ES-35/38: Participate in a group discussion, including: acting as facilitator, time keeper, leader, listener, or mediator  evaluating the effectiveness of participant’s performance

 

ES-29/32: Follow instructions for complex procedures/routines

Student makes presentation on biome. Other students listen and ask questions.  Para educator is guiding the lesson.

Counting Money: One Up Method

(:41)
9th-11th

ES-6/1: Identify and solve simple computation problems

 

ES-9/10: Model and solve equations using pictures, objects, and letters that relate to real-life relationships

Student using “One Up” strategy to count money.

Spelling (:37)

10th

ELA

ES-29/32:  Follow instructions for complex procedures/routines

ES-29/32:  Participate in a group discussion (when done with other students)

 

 

Review a spelling lesson created in PowerPoint.

Using Technology to Extend ABC Patterns

(1:08)

 

Using Technology to Extend AB Patterns I 

(:24)

 

Using Technology to Extend AB Patterns II

(1:08)

9th-11th ES-37/27 – Analyze and extend a pattern Student uses technology, a SMART Board, to extend a pattern. Used as reinforcement activity and assessment. 

Reading Assessment (Errorless) - One choice scanning

(:38)

 

10th

ELA

ES-29/32:  Follow instructions for complex procedures/routines

ES-2/2:  Identify story elements

ES-11/11:  Demonstrate understanding of information in texts

After completing literacy unit, assess comprehension via electronic test.  This student is learning the routine of responding to assessment questions.

 

Reading Assessment – Multiple Choice

(1:00)

10th

ELA

ES-29/32:  Follow instructions for complex procedures/routines

ES-2/2:  Identify story elements

ES-11/11:  Demonstrate understanding of information in texts

After completing literacy unit, assess comprehension via multiple choice electronic test.

Reading – Chain Switch Access (:30)

10th

ELA

ES-29/32:  Follow instructions for complex procedures/routines

Independently read an electronic book using a chain switch.

Reading – Electronic Reader (:44)

10th

ESA

ES-29/32:  Follow instructions for complex procedures/routings

ES-29/32:  Participate in a group discussion

Either independently or with a group, read a book using an electronic reader. Observe: student insists upon independence!

Reading – Modified Switch

(:37)

10th

ELA

ES-29/32:  Follow instructions for complex procedures/routines

Using a modified switch, independently read an electronic book.

Reading – Reviewing Story Elements(:37)

10th

ELA

ES-29/32:  Follow instructions for complex procedures/routines

ES-29/32:  Participate in a group discussion

ES-2/2:  Identify story elements

ES-11/11:  Demonstrate understanding of information in texts

Review reading comprehension by selecting a question with a spinner device, and by selecting an answer recorded on a communication device.

Reading – Simple Scanning (:29)

10th

ELA

ES-29/32:  Follow instructions for complex procedures/routines.

Independently choose and read an electronic book using a switch and a scanning procedure.

 

 

 

15
Presentation materialsUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

Dr. Gretchen Hanser's Students with Significant Disabilities as Writers, Readers and Communicators:  Yes They Can! worskhops on 1/24/12 and 1/25/12:

The handouts listed below from the 1/24/12 & 1/25/12 workshops are located on the Center for Literacy and Disability Studies website:

  Emergent Writing Interaction Inventory   
 
Predictable Chart Writing

 

Nanette Olivier's LRA presentation, 11/8/2011 in Lafayette, LA.

   Literacy for Students with Significant Disabilities: Requirements, Recommendations, and Resources

 

 

Dr. Gretchen Hanser's Emergent Literacy for All! worskhops on 9/26/11 and 9/27/11:

-- Agenda

-- Main Handout (PDF of slides)

 

The handouts below from the 9/26 & 9/27 workshops are located on the Center for Literacy and Disability Studies website:
--Emergent Literacy Goals

--Partner Assisted Scanning
--Emergent Writing Interaction Inventory  
--
Predictable Chart Writing
--Generic Reading Interaction Overlay
--Erickson Booklist

       

        

 

PowerPoint slides for the 1/24/11 CEC Super Conference session:  Quality Indicators  for Literacy Access (Significant Disabilities) (click here).  For the information regarding literacy assessment webinars and related materials, click here.

 

PowerPoint slides for the 12/8/2010 InclusionMATTERS Conference session:  All Means All!  Literacy Access for Students with Significant Disabilities (click here).

 

PowerPoint slides for the August 2010 AIM (accessible instructional materials) workshops related to the provision of AIM for students with significant disabilities (click here), and the LaSIG newsletter related to AIM for students with significant disabilities (click here).

 

PowerPoint slides for the June 15, 2010, LASARD session (Literacy Access for Students with Significant Disabilities: Requirements, recommendations, and resources)

 

PowerPoint slides for the May 5, 2010 SIG day  (Literacy Access for Students with Significant Disabilities: Support at your fingertips!

 

PowerPoint slides from the April 27, 2010 East Baton Rouge Parish Literacy and Numeracy Celebration:  Keynote address (Nanette Olivier)

 

Materials from the December 2009 Literacy Institute:  Low Incidence Disabilities

 

·     The PowerPoint slides and supplemental handout from the Access Guide:  Literacy Supports at Your Finger Tips!  session can be found at the two links below:  http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/literacy%20institute%20access%20guide%20iteracy%20session.ppt

 

http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Literacy%20Support%20Recommendations.doc

 

 

The PowerPoint slides from Nancy Steele's session can be found here:  http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/CommunicationandLiteracy%20LA%2009.ppt

 

·     The PowerPoint slides and resources list from Dr. Christi Carnahan's session can be found at the two links below:  http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Carnahan%20Literacy%20Significant%20Disabilities%20Dec%2009%20for%20Email.pptx        

 

http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Literacy%20Resources.doc

 

 

Material from the Center for Literacy and Disability Studies

·     The PowerPoint slides from the presentation Literacy and Students with Severe Disabilities:  The Time is Now! (Pierce, P.) can be found at the link below:

http://www.med.unc.edu/ahs/clds/files/early-childhood-resources/EmergentLiteracyandSPH.pdf?searchterm=emergent+literacy+IEP+goals

 

16
Attachment
Literacy WebinarsUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

WEBINAR:  Literacy in the IEP:  Extreme Makeover

Presenter:  Dr. Caroline Musselwhite

 

This webinar, recorded on January 25, 2011, takes a lighthearted (but very meaningful) approach to incorporating literacy targets in IEPs for students with significant disabilities.  Dr. Musselwhite guides the listeners to look in their "IEP closets" and decide what to toss out, and what to consider when shopping for new IEP content.  The webinar is short (51 minutes), but can help you get started on writing IEPs that prepare the IEP team and the student for success. 

 

Procedures to view the webinar:

In order to view this webinar, you must first download the AT&T participant software at the following website:  http://uc.att.com/support/download_attc_participant.html

Please note that this software is only compatible with Windows operating system at this point.  You will then be able to open and SAVE the webinar file to your PC for viewing by clicking on the following address:

http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/IEP/Literacy%20in%20the%20IEP_Extreme%20Makeover%20Webinar%20January%202011.vcr

The following are handouts related to the webinar:
 
 
 

WEBINAR:  Literacy Assessments (Part 1):  Significant Disabilities

Presenters:  Dr. Caroline Musselwhite and Nanette Olivier

 

The Literacy Assessments (Part 1):  Significant Disabilities webinar, recorded on October 27, 2010, provides an overview of the literacy assessment requirements related to students with significant disabilities in Louisiana public schools.  The Part 1 webinar provides a review of three assessment tools and their use with this population of students:  DIBELS, the BRIDGE, and the Literacy Rubric.  Also included in the webinar is information about resources available for school personnel to use in supporting implementation efforts. 

 

Procedures to view the webinar (Part 1):

In order to view this webinar, you must first download the AT&T participant software at the following website:  http://uc.att.com/support/download_attc_participant.html

Please note that this software is only compatible with Windows operating system at this point.  You will then be able to open and SAVE the webinar file to your PC for viewing by clicking on the following address:

 
The following are handouts related to the Part 1 webinar:
 
 

WEBINAR:  Literacy Assessments (Part 2):  Significant Disabilities

Presenters:  Dr. Caroline Musselwhite and Nanette Olivier

 

The Literacy Assessments (Part 2):  Significant Disabilities webinar, recorded on October 27, 2010, focuses primarily on a review of three literacy assessment tool options:  Intervention Planning Tool, Early Literacy Checklists, and Development Spelling Test (Monster Test).   Webinar participants are encouraged to view Part 1 before viewing Part 2, as Part 1 addresses literacy assessment requirements pertaining to students with significant disabilities.  Also included in the Part 2 webinar is information about resources available for school personnel to use in supporting implementation efforts. 

 

Procedures to view the webinar (Part 2):

In order to view this webinar, you must first download the AT&T participant software at the following website:  http://uc.att.com/support/download_attc_participant.html

Please note that this software is only compatible with Windows operating system at this point.  You will then be able to open and SAVE the webinar file to your PC for viewing by clicking on the following address:

 
The following are handouts related to the Part 2 webinar:
17
Alternate Pencils (including video clips)Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).

Many students with significant disabilities have very limited, if any, opportunities to write.  These students may have physical/motor impairments or cognitive challenges that present barriers to writing in a conventional manner. 

 

The Center for Literacy and Disability Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (refer to http://www.med.unc.edu/ahs/clds/) has provided leadership in looking at multiple types of “alternate pencils” for these students.  These “pencils” provide alternate ways for students to access the alphabet and begin to engage in the writing process.  The Center’s website provides video clips of students with significant disabilities using alternate pencils.  Direct links to case studies (Jake and Matthew) are as follows: 

 

http://www.med.unc.edu/ahs/clds/projects/deaf-blind-model-classroom/jakes-story

 

http://www.med.unc.edu/ahs/clds/projects/deaf-blind-model-classroom/matthews-story

 

 

Louisiana's Alternate Pencil Initiative

Efforts are underway in several Louisiana school districts to support students in the use of “alternate pencils.”  Links to webinars related to this activity are provided below.  Images of strategies related to "alternate pencil" use are found in the chart below.

 

Video/Photo Image (click on titles)

Description

1- Minute Writing Context Checklist

Student’s use of an alternate pencil strategy to write a story, and use of the 1-Minute Writing Context Checklist to assess student’s progress

Adapted Alternate Pencil Keyboard

Use of an alternate pencil overlay that has been modified to further assist student with a visual impairment

Magnetic letters

Use of a cookie sheet with magnetic letters as an alternate pencil tool

Spelling and Math Tasks with Alternate Pencil Inserts

Alternate pencil use for more advanced tasks

Alternate Pencil- Writing Progression  (:48)

This video clip shows a student’s active progression in emergent writing skills using an alternate pencil. The student uses an Intellikeys adapted keyboard, modified with tactile alphabet stickers. The 1st opportunity is a teacher assisted, guided writing activity, while the 2nd and 3rd opportunities depict independent free writing. The clip spans an entire school year of multiple alternate pencil writing activities and shows the student’s increase in purposeful writing interactions.

Alternate Pencil- Alphabet Flip Chart (1:12)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alternate Pencil-Reading Back  (0:32)

 

 

Alternate Pencil-Requesting Finished

(0:28)

The student is engaged in a “free writing” activity using an alphabet flip chart alternate pencil.  The adult uses the partner assisted scanning technique.  Vocalizations by the student are recognized as the way of indicating which letter to write. The instructor shapes the behavior to build symbolic communication to use a single switch voice output device to indicate “that’s the one”.  Notice how the student is expecting the pattern of letter naming and engagement increases.

 

Student uses a single cell direct select voice output device to read her writing to others.  

 

Teacher acknowledges students choice to stop writing.  Eye gaze, gestures and symbols are used to confirm.

Alternate Pencil-Attributing Meaning

(0:47)

In first experiences with writing, the teacher is giving meaning to the students “reach” to the alternate pencil flip chart.  Teacher is shaping the student’s behavior/response by waiting for him to respond and verbally labeling that behavior. As each letter is written, the teacher gives meaning to the letter by stating words that begin with that letter sound.

Interactive board utilized as alternate pencil

 

(1:18)

The student engages and actively participates independently in emergent writing skills using the interactive board. Boardmaker Speaking Dynamically Pro (SDP) is used to showcase the alphabet in this keyboard format. He attempts to write his name and explores the sights and sounds of other letter writings as well.  The teacher uses some of the student’s chosen letters to model writing words and his name.  He enjoys hearing the letter sounds and words read back to him. He accesses the interactive board several times a day to practice his writing skills.

Alternate Pencils

Writing with Alternate Pencils: Scanning

(1:35)

Writing with Alternate Pencils : Direct Selection – Low Tech

(1:14)

 

Writing with Alternate Pencils: Direct Selection – High Tech

(0:35)

“Alternate pencils” provide access to writing with for students who are unable to hold a traditional pencil. All 26 letters of the alphabet are presented and students dictate their choices using scanning or direct selection. During each writing session, the teacher models use of the student’s alternate pencil, the student writes, and the student reads back his writing. Writing with alternate pencils allows students with significant disabilities to develop beginning writing skills in the same way as typical students at the emergent writing level. 

 

The videos show three different methods of accessing writing with students at the very beginning emergent stage of writing. Instruction focuses on the process of “scribbling” rather than attempting to spell or produce a specific product. Attaching meaning to students’ choices when possible increases engagement and highlights sound/symbol relations. Students use their communication devices to read back their writing.  In addition to developing beginning literacy skills, students have shown progress in intentional responding, switch use, cause/effect relations, attending to task, social interaction and communication skills.

 

Observe: 

Note in the first video, Writing with Alternate Pencils: Scanning, the teacher incorporates recording the student’s writing on the device into the teaching session.

 

In the third video, Writing with Direct Selection – High Tech, note the use of a tactile Braille overlay on the Intellitools board, the use of hand-under-hand modeling, and reinforcement of left-to-right fingering.

 

Additional information on "writing with alternate pencils" is available on the following links:

 

Emergent Literacy Interaction Inventory

Sample IEP Goals

Access Guide - Literacy View

Alternate Pencils

 

 

November 2010 Webinar:  Alternate Pencil - Why Bother? (Introduction) - (First webinar in a 3-part series)

In association with the Louisiana Department of Education's Alternate Pencil Project, Dr. Vicky Roy produced this webinar which provides an introduction to the use of "alternate pencil strategies" for students who cannot access the full alphabet in typical manners. 

 

In order to view this webinar, you must first download the AT&T participant software at the following website:  http://uc.att.com/support/download_attc_participant.html

Please note that this software is only compatible with Windows operating system at this point.  You will then be able to open and SAVE the webinar file to your PC for viewing by clicking on the following address:

http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Literacy%20writing/Alternate%20Pencil%20(Introduction)%20November%202010.vcr

 

The handout for the November 2010 webinar can be accessed by clicking here:  Alternate Pencil:  Why Bother? (Introduction) Handout

 

November 2010 Webinar:  Alternate Pencil – Getting Started (Second webinar a 3-part series)

In association with the Louisiana Department of Education's Alternate Pencil Project, Dr. Vicky Roy produced this webinar which provides information on basic strategies to use in getting started with the use of alternate pencils for students who cannot access the full alphabet in typical manners. 

 

In order to view this webinar, you must first download the AT&T participant software at the following website:  http://uc.att.com/support/download_attc_participant.html

Please note that this software is only compatible with Windows operating system at this point.  You will then be able to open and SAVE the webinar file to your PC for viewing by clicking on the following address:  http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Alternate%20Pencil/Alternate%20Pencil%20(Getting%20Started).vcr

The handout for the webinar Alternate Pencil (Getting Started) Webinar can be found at the following link:  http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Literacy%20writing/Webinar%202%20Alternate%20Pencils%20-%20Getting%20Starting.pdf

 

 

April 5, 2010 Webinar:  Alternate Pencils:  Advanced Strategies (Third webinar in a 3-part series)

In association with the Louisiana Department of Education's Alternate Pencil Project, Dr. Vicky Roy produced this webinar which addresses advanced strategies in supporting students' use of an "alternate pencil." 

 

In order to view this webinar, you must first download the AT&T participant software at the following website:  http://uc.att.com/support/download_attc_participant.html

Please note that this software is only compatible with Windows operating system at this point.  You will then be able to open and SAVE the webinar file to your PC for viewing by clicking on the following address:

http://sda.doe.louisiana.gov/ResourceFiles/Alternate%20Pencil/Alternate%20Pencil%203.vcr

 

Note that there is a "false start" to this webinar.  The webinar does not actually begin until one minute and 45 seconds into the session, and the screen image (PowerPoint slide program) does not begin until two minutes and thirty-one seconds into the session.

The handout for the April 5, 2010, webinar can be reached here:  Alternate Pencils" Moving beyond "Let's Write"

 

 

21